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THE OMAYYAD CALIPHATE           51
as the Hanifite. Mukhtar was killed by Musab, brother
of Ibn Zobayr, who in turn was defeated and killed by
Abdul Malik in A.H. 71 (690). Ibn Zobayr, who
probably would have been elected Caliph had he shown
more enterprise after the death of Yezid, was attacked
for the second time in A.H. 72 (691). It was on this
occasion that Hajjaj bin Yusuf, the ferocious general and
administrator who was the incarnation of the spirit of the
Omayyad dynasty, first played a leading part. He
showed no respect for the Sacred City, which he besieged,
and Ibn Zobayr/ deserted by many of his followers, met
a soldier's death in A.H. 73 (692), after thirteen years of
successful independence, during which he had been a
constant rival of the Caliphs. The Caliphate of Abdul
Malik was then acknowledged throughout the Moslem
world.
The Massacre of the Enemies of Husayn, A.H. 66
(685).—In A.H. 65 the KharijiteSj whose sinister activity
kept Persia perpetually convulsed, visited the tomb of
Husayn at Kerbela and bewailed their desertion of his
cause. They then invaded Syria, but were defeated and
returned to Kufa. In the following year there were
tribal fights in Kufa which ended in a massacre of all
who had opposed Husayn. Persians exult over the just
retribution which fell upon Shimr, Amr, and other
citizens, many of whom were put to death with torture ;
and owing to the vigilance of Mukhtar but few escaped.
The heads of Amr and his son were sent to the Hanifite,
who appears to have been merely a tool of a crafty
intriguer.
The Azrakites.—In A.H. 74 (693) Irak was threatened
by a branch of the Kharijites, termed Azrakites, and, as
the Arabs were unwilling to fight in these campaigns,
Hajjaj was appointed Governor. Arriving suddenly at
Kufa, he sat in the mosque *with his face veiled until
asked his name, when he delivered the speech which is
quoted at the head of this chapter. Frightened by such
ferocious language, the citizens streamed out to the camp
and the peril was averted; but time after time insurrec-
tions of these fanatics broke out, unhappy Kerman